Die casting can be a metal casting procedure that is described as forcing molten metal under high pressure into a mold cavity. The mold cavity is produced using two hardened tool steel dies which were machined into shape and work similarly to CNC precision machining during the process. Most die castings are made of non-ferrous metals, specifically zinc, copper, aluminium, magnesium, lead, pewter and tin-based alloys. Dependant upon the form of metal being cast, a hot- or cold-chamber machine can be used.
The casting equipment as well as the metal dies represent large capital costs and that tends to limit this process to high-volume production. Production of parts using die casting is comparatively simple, involving only four main steps, which keeps the incremental cost per item low. It can be especially designed for a huge volume of small- to medium-sized castings, this is why die casting produces more castings than every other casting process. Die castings are described as a very good surface finish (by casting standards) and dimensional consistency.
Two variants are pore-free die casting, that is utilized to remove gas porosity defects; and direct injection die casting, which is used with zinc castings to reduce scrap and increase yield.
Die casting equipment was invented in 1838 for the purpose of producing movable type for that printing industry. The initial die casting-related patent was granted in 1849 for a small hand-operated machine when it comes to mechanized printing type production. In 1885 Otto Mergenthaler invented the linotype machine, an automated type-casting device which became the prominent kind of equipment from the publishing industry. The Soss die-casting machine, made in Brooklyn, NY, was the 1st machine to get available in the open market in America. Other applications grew rapidly, with die casting facilitating the expansion of consumer goods and appliances if you make affordable the creation of intricate parts in high volumes. In 1966, General Motors released the Acurad process.
The main die casting alloys are: zinc, aluminium, magnesium, copper, lead, and tin; although uncommon, ferrous die casting is also possible. Specific die casting alloys include: Zamak; zinc aluminium; die casting parts to, e.g. The Aluminum Association (AA) standards: AA 380, AA 384, AA 386, AA 390; and AZ91D magnesium.F The following is a summary of the advantages of each alloy:
Zinc: the easiest metal to cast; high ductility; high impact strength; easily plated; economical for small parts; promotes long die life.
Aluminium: lightweight; high dimensional stability for complex shapes and thin walls; good corrosion resistance; good mechanical properties; high thermal and electrical conductivity; retains strength at high temperatures.
Magnesium: the best metal to machine; excellent strength-to-weight ratio; lightest alloy commonly die cast.
Copper: high hardness; high corrosion resistance; highest mechanical properties of alloys die cast; excellent wear resistance; excellent dimensional stability; strength approaching those of steel parts.
Silicon tombac: high-strength alloy made from copper, zinc and silicon. Often used as a replacement for investment casted steel parts.
Lead and tin: high density; extremely close dimensional accuracy; used for special types of corrosion resistance. Such alloys are not used in foodservice applications for public health reasons. Type metal, an alloy of lead, tin and antimony (with sometimes traces of copper) is commonly used for casting hand-set type letterpress printing and hot foil blocking. Traditionally cast at hand jerk moulds now predominantly die cast once the industrialisation in the type foundries. Around 1900 the slug casting machines came into the market and added further automation, with sometimes dozens of casting machines at one newspaper office.
There are a variety of geometric features that need considering when creating a parametric model of a die casting:
Draft is the level of slope or taper made available to cores or another aspects of the die cavity to enable for simple ejection of the casting in the die. All die cast surfaces that are parallel towards the opening direction of the die require draft for your proper ejection of your casting through the die. Die castings which feature proper draft are simpler to remove through the die and result in high-quality surfaces and a lot more precise finished product.
Fillet may be the curved juncture of two surfaces that would have otherwise met in a sharp corner or edge. Simply, fillets could be included with a die casting to take out undesirable edges and corners.
Parting line represents the point at which two different sides of the mold combine. The location of the parting line defines which side from the die may be the cover and which is the ejector.
Bosses are added to die castings to offer as stand-offs and mounting points for parts that must be mounted. For maximum integrity and strength of the die casting, bosses will need to have universal wall thickness.
Ribs are added to a die casting to offer added support for designs which need maximum strength without increased wall thickness.
Holes and windows require special consideration when die casting as the perimeters of these features will grip towards the die steel during solidification. To counteract this affect, generous draft ought to be included in hole and window features.
There are two basic kinds of die casting machines: hot-chamber machines and cold-chamber machines. They are rated by how much clamping force they are able to apply. Typical ratings are between 400 and 4,000 st (2,500 and 25,400 kg).
Hot-chamber die casting
Schematic of any hot-chamber machine
Hot-chamber die casting, also called gooseneck machines, depend on a swimming pool of molten metal to give the die. At the outset of the cycle the piston of your machine is retracted, that enables the molten metal to fill the “gooseneck”. The pneumatic- or hydraulic-powered piston then forces this metal out of your Zinc die casting in to the die. The benefits of this system include fast cycle times (approximately 15 cycles one minute) and the simplicity of melting the metal inside the casting machine. The disadvantages of this system are that it must be limited by use with low-melting point metals and this aluminium cannot 21dexupky used since it picks up a few of the iron whilst in the molten pool. Therefore, hot-chamber machines are primarily used in combination with zinc-, tin-, and lead-based alloys.
These are generally used when the casting alloy cannot be used in hot-chamber machines; such as aluminium, zinc alloys having a large composition of aluminium, magnesium and copper. This process for these machines start out with melting the metal inside a separate furnace. Then this precise level of molten metal is transported to the cold-chamber machine where it is actually fed into an unheated shot chamber (or injection cylinder). This shot is then driven in the die by a hydraulic or mechanical piston. The largest disadvantage of this product may be the slower cycle time due to must transfer the molten metal from the furnace for the cold-chamber machine.